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TURBOCHARGER & SUPERCHARGER

NECESSITY OF TURBOCHARGER AND SUPERCHARGER

In designing an engine, the balance between higher power on the one hand and lower weight and smaller size on the other must be taken into consideration. One way to make the engine able to meet both requirements is to equip it with a turbocharger or supercharger. This allows a greater volume and weight of compressed air to be burnt with a greater amount of fuel, resulting in a greater power output for an engine of a given size.

 

WAYS TO INCREASE POWER

In most internal combustion engines, the amount of power that can be obtained from an engine of given displacement is determined by the amount of air that is drawn into the combustion chamber in a given period of time. Due to this fact, there are several different methods that can be used to increase engine output. Three typical ways are shown below:

INCREASING ENGINE DISPLACEMENT
This is the most obvious way, but because the weight of the engine may also increase if this is done, there is not much improvement in terms of the weight-to power ratio.

INCREASING MAXIMUM ENGINE SPEED
Conventional engines are limited to about 6,000 rpm due to the increased friction loss, noise and vibration, and decreased intake efficiency that occur at high speeds.

CHARGING CYLINDERS WITH DENSER AIR (USE OF TURBOCHARGER OR SUPER-CHARGER)
Using this method, the amount of air necessary forcombustion of the extra fuel can be greatly increased,resulting in increased power output.


FEATURES OF TURBOCHARGER AND SUPERCHARGER

The turbocharger and the supercharger are both a kind of air pump, which force the intake air into the cylinders to increase its density. The pressure of the intake air thus supplied to the cylinders by the turbocharger or the supercharger becomes greater than atmospheric pressure and its density increases because the cylinders are closed vessels.

These features are summarized in the following table:

                                                                                                         Turbocharged

 

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